Welding Rod Selection

Welding Rod Selection - It is composed of materials that have a similar composition as the metal that is weld.

There are a myriad of aspects that influence the selection of the correct electrode for any project. 

In the end:

Stick electrodes or SMAW are consumable, which means they can be used as an integral part of the welding. 

Welding Rod Selection

They can also be known as an electrode for filling as well as a welding rod.

TIG tungsten electrodes are not consumable since they do not melt and then become part of the welding necessitating using a rod for welding.

TIG filler rods are a filler material to connect two parts of the stock to form the composite.

MIG welding electrode MIG welding electrode can be described as a wire that is continuously fed often referred to in the industry as MIG wire.

The choice of the electrode is crucial for ease of cleaning as well as weld strength and bead qualityand minimising any speater.

Electrodes must be kept in a dry and dry environment. 

They should also be remove them from the packaging (follow the instructions to prevent harm).


Covered Welding Electrodes

If the molten metal exposes to the air it absorbs oxygen and nitrogen, and then becomes brittle or otherwise negatively impacted.

The slag cover is necessary to shield molten metal from damage or protect weld metal from the air. 

This cover is obtainable by removing an electrode's coating.

The structure of the coating for the welding electrode is what determines its effectiveness, as well as its composition, the weld metal, as well as the specification of the electrode.

The design of electrode coatings for welding is based on the well-established rules of chemistry, metallurgy and physical science.

The coating guards it from damage and helps stabilize the arc and helps improve the quality of the weld. 

Other ways to improve it are including:

  • Metal surface that is smooth and welds smoothly with straight edges
  • The minimum amount of spatter should be near the weld
  • A strong welding arc
  • Controlling penetrating
  • A tough, durable coat
  • Easier slag removal
  • Improved deposition rate

Metal-arc electrodes can be classified into thinly coated or bare electrodes, shielded or heavily coated electrodes.

A covered electrode is by far the most well-known type of filler metal utilized in the arc welding process.

The material of an electrode's covering will determine the usability that the electrode has, as does the composition of the weld metal, as well as the specifications for the electrode.

The kind of electrode used will depend on the specific characteristics needed in the weld.

This includes the resistance to corrosion, ductility, high tensile force, the kind of base metal that will be welded, and the direction where the weld will be (flat horizontal, vertical or overhead) and the kind of current required and the polarity.


Classification

In the welding business, they have adopted American Welding Society's class series for electrodes for welding rods.

The system of identifying electrodes used for welding steel arcs is designed according to the following:

E - indicates electrode for arc welding.

The 2 (or three) numbers represent the strength of the tensile (the resistivity of the metal against forces trying to break it) in pounds of thousands for every square centimeter of material.

Third (or fourth) number - is the location of the weld. 

Zero indicates that the classification is not being used and 1 applies to all positions, 2 is for horizontal and flat horizontal positions only. 

3 is only for flat positions.

Fourth (or fifth) number - is the kind of electrode coating and the power source that is used, direct or alternating current and reverse or straight direction of polarity.

The different types of coatings weld current, coating, and the polarity of the electrode as indicated with the 4th (or fifth) number of identification in an electrode's classification is described in Tables 5-4 below.

The code E6010 refers to an arc-welding electrode that has minimum stress relieved strength of 60,000 psi. 

It can be employed in all positions and reverse the polarity of direct current is needed.

Coating, Current and Polarity Types Designated By the Fourth Digit in the Electrode Classification Number

The identification of electrodes for welding rods system for welding with stainless steel is designed as follows:

E indicates electrode for arc welding.

The first three numbers indicated that it was an American iron and steel-type of stainless steel.

The last two numbers indicate the current location and the time.

The code E-308-16 in this system is a reference to the stainless steel Institute type 308 that is employed in all positions using reverse or alternating direct current.


Classification System For Submerged Arc Electrodes

The method of determining the presence of carbon steel bare in solid form to be used in the submerged arc is as the following:

A prefix of the letter "E" is utilized to signify an electrode. 

Then follows an alphabet that indicates manganese levels, i.e., L for low M for medium or H to indicate high manganese. 

Then, there is an array of the typical quantity of carbon hundredths or points of percent. 

The chemical composition of particular wires appears exactly like the wires listed in the Gas Metal Arc Welding specifications.

The electrode wires for submerged arc welding is described within the American Welding Society specification, Bare Mild Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding.

This specification describes the composition of the wire as well as the chemistry of the weld deposit, dependent on the flux that is employed. 

The specification also provides the composition of electrode wires. 

This information is contained in the table 8-1. 

If these electrodes are utilized using specific submerged arc fluxes and are welded according to the proper procedure the weld material that is deposited will have the properties that are required by the specifications.

In the red fillers used for gas welding using oxyfuel The prefix letter is R followed by a G, which indicates that the rod has been used specifically to gas weld. 

The characters are followed by 2 numbers that are 45 60, 65 or. 

They represent the approximate strength of tensile force in the 1000 psi range (6895 KPa).

In nonferrous filler materials, the prefix E, R or RB is employed and is followed by the chemical symbol for the main metals of the wire. The initials of two or three elements are followed by. 

If there are multiple alloys that contains the same elements, an additional suffix number or letter could be added.

The specifications of the American Welding Society are the most commonly utilized to define the welding rod and electrode wires. 

Also, military requirements exist, such as the MIL-E and -R specifications as well as federal specifications, usually the QQ-R type as well as the AMS specifications. 

The specific specification is the one to be used when defining filler metals.

The most significant aspect of welding rods and wires is their composition as defined in the specifications. 

The specifications define the compositional limits for various wires and mechanical properties requirements.

On occasion, with solid wires that are copper-plated that the copper can break off from the mechanism for feeding, causing issues. 

It can plug lines as well as contact tips. 

A thin copper coating is preferred. 

The electrode's surface must be free of drawing compounds and dirt. 

You can check this by using a white cleansing tissue, and then pulling an arc of wire across it. 

A lot of dirt can block the liners and reduce the current that is picked up at the tip and cause erratic welding processes.

The strength or temper of the wire may be assessed using a test machine. 

Wire that is stronger can pass through cables and guns better. 

The minimum strength for tensile recommended by the standard of 140,000 PSI (965,300 kgpa).

Continuous electrode wire can be found in a variety of packages. 

They range from small spools that are used in the spool guns, to spools of medium size that are suitable for fine-wire gas welding. 

Electrode wire coils are available, and they can be put on reels that form component of welding equipment. 

There are reels that are massive, with weights of several hundred pounds. 

Electrode wires are offered in payoff drums or packs, where the wire is placed in the container in a round shape and then pulled out of the container using an automated wire feeder.


Coatings

The electrodes that are coated to weld mild and low alloy steels can contain from 6 to 12 components, that includes:

  • Cellulose to make an insulating gaseous layer that contains a reducing agent the process of disintegration of cellulose creates the gas shield that surrounds the arches
  • Metal carbonates are used to modify the base of the slag and to create a reducing air temperature
  • Titanium dioxide helps create a highly fluid and rapid freezing slag as well as to create ionization for the arc
  • Ferrosilicon and ferromanganese assist in the deoxidization of the molten metal and to increase the manganese content as well as the silicon levels of weld metal
  • Gums and clays to give elasticity to the extrusion of the coating material made of plastic and to provide strength to the coating
  • Calcium fluoride is used to provide protection gas that shields the arc, alter the slag's basic properties and to improve the liquidity and solubility to the metal oxides
  • Mineral silicates to supply slag and provide strength to the electrode's cover
  • Alloying metals including molybdenum and nickel as well as the element chromium to give an alloy component to the weld metal
  • Manganese oxide or iron to alter the slag's fluidity and properties, and to help to stabilize the arc
  • Iron powder is used to improve the efficiency of your business by providing more metal that can be deposited into the weld
  • The main kinds of coatings on electrodes used for welding are for mild steel are described below

Cellulose-sodium (EXX10) Electrodes from this type of cellulosic material, in either wood flour, or in reprocessed low-alloy electrodes contain up to 30 % paper. 

The gas shield has hydrogen and carbon dioxide which are both reducing agents. 

These gases can create an arc of digging which provides deep penetration. 

The weld deposits are somewhat rough while the precipitation is greater level as compared to other electrodes. 

It is a great material with outstanding mechanical properties, especially when it is aging. 

It's one of the first types of electrodes invented and widely used for pipelines that cross country using the downhill welding method. 

It is typically used with direct current, with the electrode positive (reverse reverse polarity).

Cellulose-potassium (EXX11) The electrode is very similar to cellulose-sodium electrode. 

However, the use of potassium is higher than sodium. 

This causes ionization of the arc, making the electrode suitable for welding with an alternating current.

The effect of the arc, the depth and weld result are a like. 

In both electrodes small amounts of iron powder could be added. 

This helps in stabilizing the arc and can slightly boost the rate of deposition.

Rutile-sodium (EXX12) If the there is a high percentage of titanium dioxide or rutile in the mix, and it is quite high in relation to other components this electrode is particularly appealing to welders.

Electrodes that have this coating feature an arc that is quiet, easily managed slag, as well as a minimal amount of spatter.

The weld deposits has a smooth, smooth surface as well as the penetration lower than that of the cellulosic electrode.

The properties of the weld metal are slightly less than those of the cellulosic type.

This kind of electrode has an extremely high amount of deposition.

It has a low arc voltage, and is able to be used with an direct current or alternating current that is negative (straight direction of polarity).

Rutile-potassium (EXX13) Rutile-potassium (EXX13): This electroplating is as similar to rutile-sodium kind, but potassium is employed to create an arc ionization.

This makes it better to weld with the alternating current. 

It is also possible to use by direct current using either or both sides. 

It creates a fluid, quiet arc.

Rutile-iron Powder (EXXX4) The coating is like the rutile coatings described above, but the iron powder has been added. 

If the iron content is between 25-40 percent the electrode will be EXX14. 

If the iron content is more than 50 percent The electrode will be EXX24. 

With a lower percentage of powdered iron, this electrode is able to be used in any position. 

The higher proportion of iron paler is only able to be utilized in the flat location or for horizontal fillet welding. 

In both instances the rate of deposition enhanced based on the quantity of iron powder present in the coating.

Low-hydrogen sodium (EXXX5) The coatings with a high percentage of calcium carbonate or fluoride are referred to as the low-hydrogen, lime ferritic also known as basic types of electrodes. 

In this class of coatings cellulose, clays asbestos and other minerals that are enriched with combined water are not utilized. 

This is in order to achieve the lowest hydrogen content in the arc. 

The electroplatings bake at the highest temperature. 

The low hydrogen electrodes have excellent weld properties. 

They offer the most conductivity of all deposits. 

They are characterized by an arc of moderate or medium penetration. 

They have a moderate speed of deposition however they require special welding techniques to get the most effective outcomes. 

Low hydrogen electrodes should be stored in monitored conditions. 

These types are typically employed with direct current and electrodes negative (reverse reverse polarity).

Low hydrogen potassium (EXXX6) This kind that is coated is identical to low hydrogen-sodium type, with substituting potassium in place of sodium in order to create the arc the ionization. 

The electrode can be used by alternating current, and can be utilized by direct current or electrodes positive (reverse the polarity). 

The arc is more smooth, however the penetration between the two electrodes is comparable.

The low hydrogen potassium (EXXX6) The coatings of this category of electrodes are like the one with low-hydrogen mentioned earlier. 

But an iron-based powder can be added and if its content exceeds 35 - 40 percent, the device is designated as EXX18.

Iron powder with low hydrogen (EXX28) This electrode is similar in design to EXX18 however it has at least 50 percent iron powder within the coating. 

It is only suitable for welding in the flat direction or for horizontal fillet welding. 

The rate of deposition is greater than EXX18. Coatings that are low in hydrogen can be employed to make all the higher alloy electrodes. 

By adding specific metals to the coatings, these electrodes turn into the alloy types in which suffix letters can be used to identify welding metal compositions. 

Electrodes that are used for welding stainless steel also come in the ones with low levels of hydrogen.

The iron oxide and the sodium (EXX20) Coatings with high levels of iron oxide create an evaporation deposit that contains an abundance of slag. 

It can be difficult to manage. 

This type of coating results in high-speed deposition, and offers moderate penetration, with low spatter levels. 

The resultant weld is extremely smooth finish. 

The electrode is only used using flat position welding, as well as horizontal fillet welding. 

The electrode can be utilized by alternating or direct current that is either of two polarities.

Power of iron-oxide (EXX27) The type of electrode is like the iron oxide-sodium electrode however it has at least 50 percent iron power. 

The greater quantity of iron power boosts the deposition rate. 

It can be utilized with an alternate direct current that is either the opposite polarity.

There are a variety of coatings that are not that are listed here, many of them are combination of these kinds however they can be used for applications that are unique such as hard surfacing casting iron welding, and non-ferrous metals.


Storage

Electrodes should remain dry. 

Moisture can destroy the desirable properties of the coating. It may also cause excessive spattering, leading to cracks and porosity the creation of the welded region. 

Electrodes that are exposed to humid air for more than 2 or three hours need to be dried using an oven suitable for the task (fig 5 32) for 2 hours at 500 degF (260 C).

Once dried, they must be stored in a dry container. 

The electrode's bend can result in the layer to come and separate from the wire. 

Electrodes should not be employed when the wire that is used for the electrode is exposed.

Electrodes with the "R" suffix in the AWS classification have higher moisture resistance.


The Types Of Electrodes

Bare Electrodes

Bare welding electrodes are composed of wires that have been formulated to meet the requirements of particular applications.

The electrodes do not have any coatings apart from those that are required for wire drawing. 

The wire drawing coatings provide some stabilizing effect on the arc, but they are not of any significance. 

Bare electrodes can be used to join manganese steel, and for other applications when a coated electrode not necessary or desirable.

Light Coated Electrodes

The welding electrodes with a light coating are of a specific composition.

A thin coating has been applied to the surface washing or dipping, brushing, spraying or tumbling. 

The coatings enhance the properties of the stream of arc. 

They are included in the E45 series of the system for identifying electrodes.

The coating typically serves the purposes listed below:

It reduces or dissolves impurities like oxides, sulfurand phosphorus.

The surface tension changes of the molten metal, so that the metal globules at the end of the electrode become smaller and more frequently. 

This makes the flow of the molten metal more homogeneous.

It enhances the stability of the arc by introducing materials that can be easily Ionized (i.e. transformed into tiny particles by electrical charge) into the stream of the arc.

Some of the coatings that are light can result in an Slag. 

The slag is very thin and does not function the same way as the shielded arc-electrode type slag.


Shielded Arc Or Heavy Coated Electrodes

Shielded Arc or high-quality coated welding electrodes possess specific compositions on which a coating was applied through extrusion or dipping.

Electrodes are produced in three different kinds:

  • those coated with cellulose
  • the ones coated with mineral
  • the coatings consist of cellulose and minerals

The coatings of cellulose are made of cotton that is soluble or other types of cellulose, with tiny amounts of sodium, potassium or titanium, as well as in certain cases, additional minerals.

The mineral coatings are composed of metal oxides, sodium silicate clay, as well as other organic substances or mixtures.

Electrodes coated with cellulose safeguard the metal that is molten with an air-tight zone around the arc, as well as the welding zone.

The electrode coated with mineral forms the slag deposits.

The shielded arc, also known as heavy coated electrodes are employed to weld cast iron, steels, and hard surface.


Functions Of Shielded Arc Or Heavy Coated Electrodes

The welding electrodes create an reducing gas shield surrounding the welding arc.

This keeps atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen from contaminating the welding metal.

The oxygen quickly combines the molten metal, taking out elements that alloy and creating porosity.

Nitrogen is the cause of brittleness and low ductility, and in certain instances, weakening and weak corrosion resistance.

They eliminate impurities like sulfur, oxides, and phosphorus to ensure that these contaminants do not affect the weld's performance.

They supply elements to the arc that improve the stability of the arc. 

This reduces the possibility of wide variations in voltage, to ensure that the arc will be maintained with no excessive spewing.

In reducing the attraction force between the molten material and the electrode's end or by diminuting the tension on the surface of the molten metal the melted and vaporized coating will cause the molten metal on the other end to be broken into tiny, fine pieces.

The coatings are made up of silicates that create a slag on the weld's molten state and the base metal.

Because the slag hardens at a slow pace it retains heat and allows the base metallic material to cool down and harden slowly. 

The slow solidification process of the metal reduces gas entrapment inside the weld, and allows the solid impurities to move onto the surface. 

It also provides an effect of annealing on the weld's deposit.

The physical properties of the weld deposits are altered by the incorporation of alloying materials within the coating of electrodes. 

The fluxing process of the slag is also expected to create weld metal with better quality and allow welding at faster speeds.


Tungsten Electrodes

Non-consumable welding wires for gas-tungsten-arc (TIG) welding come in three kinds of tungsten: pure tungsten, the tungsten that contains 1 or 2 percent of thorium, and tungsten that contains 0.3 or 0.5 per cent zirconium.

Tungsten electrodes are identified for type by the markings on the ends of electrodes that are painted like this.

  • Green - pure tungsten.
  • Yellow Thorium - 1 percent.
  • Red Thorium 2 percent.
  • Brown brown 0.3 up to 0.5 per cent zirconium.

Pure tungsten (99. 5.5% the tungsten) electrodes are typically used in less crucial welding processes than tungsten that is alloyed. 

This kind that is used has lower capacity to carry current, and lower susceptibility to contamination.

Thoriated electrodes made of tungsten (1 of 2 percent or more Thorium) are superior over pure tungsten electrodes due to of their greater electron output, superior arsenity and arc starting as well as a higher capacity for carrying currents as well as a longer-lasting life span and more protection against contamination.

Tungsten welding electrodes that have 0.3 up to 0.5 percent zirconium typically fall somewhere between untreated tungsten as well as the thoriated electrodes of tungsten for performance. 

However, there is an indication of higher performance when using certain kinds of welding that use AC power.

A more precise control of the arc can be attained by ensuring that the tungsten alloyed electrolyte is grounded to a certain level. 

If electrodes are not grounded, they should be operated at the maximum current density in order to achieve acceptable stability of the arc. 

The electrodes made of tungsten are hard to maintain when standard direct current technology is utilized to power the arc and touch-starting the arc is a standard procedure. 

Maintaining the shape of the electrode and the elimination of tungsten inclusions within the weld are best done by superimposing a higher frequency current over the normal welding current. 

Tungsten electrodes made of zirconium and thorium maintain their shape for longer when the touch-starting method is employed.

The welding electrode extension past to the gas cup can be determined by kind of joint being welded.

For instance an extension over one-quarter of an (3.2 millimeters) might be suitable to join butt joints in light gage materials, while an extension of 1/4 to 1/2 inch (6.4 to 12.7 millimeters) could be required on fillet welds. 

The electrode for the tungsten torch must be angled slightly and the filler metal should be added in a controlled manner to keep out contact with the tungsten. This prevents from contaminating the electrode. 

If there is contamination, the electrode should be removed, reground and then replaced in the torch.


Direct Current Arc Welding Electrodes

The manufacturer's instructions must follow when using a particular kind of welding electrode being employed. 

In general Direct current shielded arcs are designed to work in reverse polarity (electrode positively) or straight opposite polarity (electrode negative) or both. 

Some but not all of direct current electrodes are able to be used with an alternating current. 

Direct current is the preferred method for a variety of nonferrous, covered or all-steel electrodes.

Manufacturers' recommendations contain the kind of base metal to the electrodes that are suitable as well as corrections for improper fit-ups and other conditions that are specific to.

In the majority of cases straight polarity electrodes have less penetration than reverse-polarity electrodes and, for this reason, they allow for faster welding speeds. 

A good penetration can be achieved by using either one, provided you use the correct welding conditions and manipulating the arc.


Alternating Current Arc Welding Electrodes

Coated electrodes that can be used in conjunction with direct or alternating power are readily available.

Alternating current is preferred when welding in tight areas or using the higher currents needed for large sections due to the fact that it minimizes the risk of arc blow. 

Arc blow creates blowholes inclusions of slag and the absence of welding fusion.

The use of an alternating current in atomic hydrogen welding as well as in carbon arc processes which require two carbon electrodes. 

It ensures a uniform rate of welding as well as the consumption of electrodes. 

When a carbon-arc process employs a single carbon electrode is utilized straight polarity of direct current is suggested since the electrode is consumed at less of a rate.


Electrode Defects & Their Effects

If oxides or certain elements are found in the layers of electrodes, stability of the arc is affected. 

In the case of bare electrodes, the composition and the uniformity of wires is an essential element in the management of the arc's stability. 

The thin or thick coatings on electrodes can completely removing the negative consequences of a defective wire.

Aluminum oxide or aluminum (even when present at 0.01 percent) silica or silicon dioxide, as well as iron sulfate, which is unstable. 

Manganese oxide, iron oxide and calcium oxide and also stabilize the arc.

When sulfur or phosphorus is within the electrode for more than 0.04 percent, they cause damage to the weld material since they transfer from the electrode to melting metal with very little loss. 

The presence of sulfur causes the growth of grain as well as brittleness along with "cold shortness" (i. that is. it is brittle below the red heat) within the weld. 

The severity of these defects increases when the carbon content of the steel grows. The sulfur acts as an slag that breaks the strength of the weld metal, and creates "hot shortness" (that is it becomes brittle over the red temperature). 

Sulfur is especially damaging to steel electrodes made of bare carbon with a low manganese percentage.

Manganese helps to form strong welds.

If the treatment of heat for the electrode's wire core doesn't uniformly, it may result in welds that are inferior to those made by an electrode with the same material which has had it properly treated.


Deposition Rates

Different types of electrodes come with different rates of deposition due to their composition.

Electrodes that have iron powder are the ones with the highest deposition rates. 

The United States, the percentage of iron power present in the coating ranges from 10 to 50 percent.

This is determined by the amount of iron powder contained in the coating in relation to its weight. 

This can be seen using the formula

These percentages are based on the requirements of American Welding Society (AWS) specifications.

This European method of determining iron power is determined by the weight of the weld metal in comparison to that of untreated core wire used. 

It is illustrated as follows:

Therefore, if the weight of the deposit were twice that of wire core that would result in an efficiency of 200 percent in deposition even though the iron powder present in the coating comprised only half of the deposit.

The 30 percent formula for iron power that is used for deposition in the United States would produce a 100-110 percent efficiency of deposition by using this European formula. 

Iron power electrodes with 50 percent that is based according to United States standards would produce an efficiency of around 150 percent with this European formula.


Non-Consumable Electrodes

Types

There are two kinds of welding electrodes that are not consumable.

Carbon electrodes are non-filler electrode that is used for cutting or welding made up of carbon graphite rod, which may or contain copper, or some other type of coating.

The tungsten electrode is described as a non-filler metallic electrode that is used for cutting or welding mostly from tungsten.


Carbon Electrodes

It is important to note that the American Welding Society does not offer specific specifications on carbon weld electrodes however, there is a military standard, but there is no. MIL-E-17777C. 

The specification is entitled, Electrodes Cutting and Welding Carbon-Graphite Uncoated and Copper Coated.

This specification defines an organization system for classification that is with three grades that are plain, uncoated as well as copper-coated. 

It gives diameter and length information, as well as requirements for tolerances for size Quality assurance, testing, and sampling. 

The applications comprise carbon arc welding twin carbon arc welding carbon-cutting and cutting carbon arcs using air and gouging.


Stick Electrodes

Stick welding electrodes differ by:

Size: Common sizes include 1/16 5/64, 3/32 (most popular) 1/8 3/16, 7/32 5/16 and 1/4 inches. 

The wire that is used to make electrodes should be smaller than the wires that are weldable.

Material: Stick welding electrodes are available in cast iron as well as high carbon steel mild steel and iron-free (nonferrous) and other specific alloys.)

Strength: also known as Tensile strength. Each weld has to be more durable than the metal being welded. It means that metals inside the electrode must be strong as well.

Welding position (horizontal, flat, etc. ) .

Different electrodes are employed for each welding position.

Mix of iron powder (up to 60% flux) Iron powder in the flux boosts how much molten steel available to be used in the welding (heat converts the powder to steel).

The designation "soft arc" is For thin metals or those which don't have a perfect gap or fit.

As we have mentioned There are numerous kinds of electrodes. 

These are the most widely used sticks welding (SMAW) electrodes:

E6013 and E6012 for thin metals and joints that cannot readily fit together.

E6011: Suitable for work with surfaces which are rusted, oily or have dirt. 

It is versatile in that it can work using DC or AC Polarity. 

There is no slag to be found, which is another important benefit. 

Be aware that this electrode shouldn't be placed in an oven for the production of electrodes.

E6010: Similar in design to E6011 however it only works using Direct electric current (DC). 

It is important to note that this one should not be put into an oven for the production of electrodes.

E76018 andE7016: Produced using iron powder as the flux. 

It makes strong welds, however it also has a puddle which may cause control issues for novices.

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