What Are Welding Rods Made Of

What Are Welding Rods Made Of - The rod that makes the beads of metal is known as the welding electrode.

What Are Welding Rods Made Of

Using an electrical current the welding electrode could be used to create welding beads of metal. It is composed of two components, including:

  • The actual metal
  • The coating of the flux

The metal of which the electrode is created can include one of the below: mild steel, cast iron, stainless steel high-tensile steel, bronze or copper.

The metal itself is wrapped in a coating flux composed by a combination of cellulose. 

This coating provides the rods of metal enough flexibility, hydrogen and powder. 

Additionally it contains an amalgamation consisting of Titania, Sodium, and Potassium. 

The reason for the coating on flux is to ensure that electric currents are evenly distributed while welding.

Metal Materials of a Welding Rod

Welding rods are made up of different alloys made of different metals. 

There are three common welding rods that are used to join various steel alloys. 

They are the copper-coated mild alloy as well as the 33% nickel steel alloy and an alloy of high carbon.

However, there are many kinds of different materials that can be used to make the steel rods for welding. 

Furthermore, there are rods that are specifically designed for specific metals such as aluminum, copper, and other alloys. 

Below is a brief overview of three of the most commonly used kinds of welding rods:

Copper-coated Mild Steel Alloy

The mild steel alloy that is copper-coated is the most sought-after type of welding rods on the marketplace in the present. 

It is employed for welding low carbon steel mild and iron wrought. 

It is not the most widely used, but it's also the least expensive option. 

The copper coatings protect against rust and consequently, shields the mild steel in the rod. 

The welding rod has a melting temperature of 2,714 degrees Fahrenheit.

Furthermore, it doesn't have to use flux for welding. 

The flux, naturally is the element that stops oxidation and increases our weld's strength.

High Carbon Steel Alloy

The welding rod constructed from high-carbon steel is second most widely used welding rod all over the world. 

This type of welding rod requires using flux while it comes to welding. 

Flux, in fact is the chemical that stops oxidation. 

Flux is vital in numerous welding processes. 

You can utilize high carbon steel to repair and creating things. 

It is also employed by certain bicycle manufacturing companies for making frames made of high carbon steel. 

The rod is able to melt at a temperature of 2,462 degrees Fahrenheit.

3% Nickel Steel Alloy

The 3- Percent Nickel Steel Alloy Rod Combines iron and carbon in one rod. 

This combination, in conjunction with a hint of alloy materials, is ideal to increase the toughness. 

The alloys can include molybdenum, chromium or nickel. 

This rod for welding is commonly used in welding camshafts, gears and shafts for automobiles. 

It needs flux during welding. 

Additionally the rod has a melting temperature of 2,642 degrees Fahrenheit. 

The welding rod, naturally is impervious to corrosion and doesn't require a copper coating.

Different Coatings for Welding Rods

The coatings of the welding electrodes could contain different chemical mixtures. 

The admixtures of chemicals can contain between six and twelve chemicals. 

The ingredients are as follows:

  • Cellulose is a chemical which provides a gaseous barrier for the welding. 
It also contains an agent to reduce the size of the shield that covers the weld arc. 

The gaseous shield is created by the disintegration of the cellulose.
  • Metal Carbonates is an ingredient used to alter the slag's baseness and creating the necessary reduction in the atmospheric.
  • Titanium Dioxide aids in creating a fast-freezing, highly fluid slag. 
It also helps in providing the necessary Ionization to the welding arc.
  • Gums and clays help in increasing the degree of elasticity in the coatings made of plastic when extruded. 
Additionally, it helps to increase the coating durability.
  • Ferromanganese and Ferrosilicon assist in deoxidizing of the molten metal. 
They also aid in enhancing manganese and silicon content of the metal on which the weld is formed.
  • Calcium Fluoride helps in the provision of shielding gas for shielding the arc. 
It also assists in adjusting the basicity of the slag and also provides liquidity and solubility to metal oxides.
  • Manganese or Iron Oxide it helps in controlling the fluidity of slag. 
It also alters its properties in the slag. 

Additionally it assists by stabilizing the shape of the arc.
  • Mineral Silicates can help provide the slag and also provides strength to the electrode's cover. 
It also aids in the alloying of metals such as molybdenum chromium, as well as nickel. 

Additionally it gives the weld metal that is deposited with its alloy contents.
  • Iron Powder assists in increasing productivity by releasing excess metal that can be deposited into the weld of metal.

Principal Welding Electrode Coating's Types

There are many kinds of coatings for electrodes. 

However, the most common types of electrode coatings that are employed for mild steel are the following:


This type of electrode is made up of cellulosic materials made of wood flour or low-alloy electrodes that have been processed. 

The electrodes made of low alloy are stocked with 30 percent paper. 

The gas shield contains carbon dioxide and hydrogen as reducers. 

Furthermore the digging arc creates offers deep penetration. 

Its weld layer is slightly rough. 

The spatter however has a higher concentration when compared with other electrodes.

One of the first kinds of electrodes has excellent mechanical properties. 

It is typically employed in welding pipelines employing a method of welding called downhill welding.

It is possible to use it by direct current, using electrodes either in reverse or positive opposite polarity.


There is a significant resemblance between the cellulose-sodium electrode and this electrode. 

The reason for this is its arches, penetration, and weld-related outcomes. 

But it is a lot more sodium. 

Because sodium plays a role in the Ionization of the arc and ionization, it allows the electrode to be used with an alternating current. 

If you are using electrodes such as E6011 or E6010, you could add a small amount of iron powder for maintaining the stability of your arc. 

It also increases the speed of deposition.


The greater it is the content of titanium dioxide in an electrode the more it's well-liked and appreciated by welding professionals. 

The benefit of this kind of electrode is its surface produces a smooth arched arc. 

Also, it produces an easy to control slag. 

Furthermore, it has less splash. 

Additionally, it creates smoother surfaces. 

Its penetration is lower when compared with cellulose. 

It also has an deposition rate that's extremely high. 

The low arc voltage of the device is also appreciated. 

Additionally, you can apply it using alternating or direct currents with straight polarity and negative electrode.


The coating is similar to the electrode that is rutile-sodium. 

The principal difference is that it makes use of potassium to provide an arc ionization. 

It is best suited for the alternating current. 

But, you can utilize it using direct current. 

The running arc of the device is quiet and smooth.

EXXX4--Rutile-iron Powder

Although it is somewhat like rutile coatings it is distinct from the other coatings due to the addition of iron powder. 

It is an electrode called EXX24 if it has between 25% and 40% iron. 

If it contains 50 percent iron it's the EXX24 electrode. 

It is possible to use the electrode that has the lowest iron percentage for all positions, but it is only possible to choose the one with a higher percentage for flat positions as well as for horizontal fillet welding. 

The speed of deposition naturally, will increase based on the amount of iron powder of the coat.

EXXX5--Low Hydrogen-sodium

The coating is an extremely high amount of calcium fluoride, also known as calcium carbonate. 

It is known as lime ferritic with low hydrogen. It's also referred to as a basic type of electrode. 

This type of electrode doesn't contain asbestos, clays as well as cellulose and other minerals that are mixed with water. 

This is done to make sure that it is the lowest hydrogen content that is possible.

EXXX5 is a weld that has features that surpass the norm. 

It also offers the greatest degree of the ductility of deposits. 

Medium arcs offer moderate penetration as well. 

Additionally, it has an average deposition rate however, you must use specific welding techniques to utilize this electrode. 

Additionally, it is recommended to keep the electrode in a controlled storage. 

Also, you should utilize this type of electrode in conjunction with electrodes positive and direct current.

EXXX6--Low Hydrogen-potassium

Similar to that of low hydrogen-sodium electrode, except for being that this electrode is made up of potassium in place of sodium. 

This electrode has a an arc that is smoother. 

The penetration however is comparable to that of that of the lower hydrogen-sodium. 

This electrode can be used by alternating current or direct current. 

If the coating has between 35% and 40 percent iron powder, it is classified in the category of EXX18.

EXX28--Low Hydrogen-iron Powder

The electrode is exactly identical to the EXX28 however, with its fact that this electrode is coated with 50 percent or more iron powder inside its coat. 

It can only be used in a flat configuration. 

The rate of deposition is naturally greater than the EXX18. 

This type of low-hydrogen electrode is utilized for welding stainless steel as well as different alloys.

EXX20--Iron oxide-sodium

This coating type offers rapid deposition, and provides moderate penetration. 

It also has the lowest amount of spatter. 

It also produces smooth, even surface. 

Furthermore, you can utilize this electrode only for horizontal fillet welds, or flat-position welding. 

This electrode can be used using alternating or direct current.

EXX27-Iron-oxide-iron power

It's nearly exactly the same as iron oxide-sodium. 

It has at least 50% iron. Due to its higher iron powder, its deposition rate also increases. 

It can be used in conjunction with either direct or alternating currents of any the polarity.

Do Electrode Defects Affect the Welding Results?

If you are a welder, you'll notice that if there are components that accidentally merged with the electrode coatings they can alter the stability of the arc. 

Therefore, the uniformity and their composition is important in determining the arc stability. 

One example can be the existence of sulfur or phosphorus within the electrode which may be higher than 4 percent. 

The presence of these elements can cause problems with the weld since this amount is transferred to melting metal by the electrode. 

Phosphorus, for instance, causes brittleness and grain growth. 

Sulfur weakens the strength that the welding. 

This results in bristles and hot shortness.

It is important to be aware that electrodes vary in their deposition rates based upon the nature of their coatings. 

The electrodes with the highest rates of deposition, for instance, are electrodes that have iron power.

Welding is a craft and it is a science. 

It's an art form when you've perfected the various methods involved in welding. 

It's also an art when you research the various components, including the components and elements that are used for welding. 

A welding rod naturally is a crucial element of a welding machine. 

The primary ingredients are cellulose and iron. 

In addition, the coatings of the electrode play a crucial role in determining the effects of welding.


Apart from the mentioned types of electrodes coated with coatings there are different kinds of electrode coatings not in the list. 

A lot of these coatings are an amalgamation of the mentioned elements. 

The other kinds of coatings are utilized to meet specific requirements, such as welding non-ferrous metals and hard surfacing and cast-iron welding.

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