What Is A Flux Wire Welder

What Is A Flux Wire Welder - Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) makes use of a tubular wire which is filled with flux.

The arc begins through the electrode of the continuous wire as well as the working piece.

The flux, located in the innermost part of the tubular electrode melts during welding, and also shields the weld pool from the surrounding air. 

Direct current electro positive (DCEP) is used most often in the FCAW process.

What Is A Flux Wire Welder

There are two primary processes: self-shielded FCAW (without shielding gas) and gas shielded FCAW (with shielding gas). 

The difference between them is due to the various fluxing agents used in the consumables that provide distinct benefits to the user. 

Typically self-shielded FCAW is utilized outdoors in conditions where wind can blow away gas shielding.

The fluxing agents used in self-shielded FCAW are specifically designed to not only remove oxidation from the weld pool, but as well to enable protection of the weld pool and metal droplets away from the elements.

The gas shielding in gas-shielded FCAW helps to deoxidize the weld pool. 

It also in a lesser extent than self-shielded FCAW offers secondary protection from the air. 

This flux was designed in order to protect the pool of welds for out-of-position welding. 

This variant of the process can be used to increase the efficiency of welds that are out of position as well as for greater penetration.

Flux Core Welding Process

The process of flux core welding, also known as tubular electrode welding is a development of an MIG welding technique to enhance the arc's action, transfer of metal and weld properties of metal and the appearance of welds.

The process is described as an arc-welding technique that uses heat to welding is generated through an arc formed between a tube that is fed continuously electrode wire as well as the metal workpiece.

Shielding is achieved from a flow contained within the electrode tubular or via the flux or the external supply of shielding gas. 

An illustration of the procedure is illustrated in figure 10 - 55.

The flux-cored welding wire or electrode is an elongated tube stuffed with a blend of fluxing agents, deoxidizers metal powders, and ferro-alloys. 

Its closure seam that appears to be fine lines is the only visible distinction between the flux-cored wires and the solid cold-drawn wire.

The welding of electrodes using flux can be achieved in two methods:

Carbon dioxide gas is utilized in conjunction in conjunction with the flux to offer additional protection.

The flux core provides all the shielding gas and slagging material.

Carbon dioxide's gas shield generates an extremely penetrating arc, and generally provides a stronger welding than that which is not possible without gas shields that are external to. 

Although flux-cored welding can be done semi-automatically, with a machines or even automatically however, it is generally performed semi-automatically.

In semi-automatic welding, the wire feeder is fed by the electrode wire, and the power source keeps the length of the arc. 

The welder controls the welding gun and alters the parameters of welding.

The arc welding technique is utilized in machine welding it is not only providing the wire with food and keeping the length of the arc The machine also offers the joint with a travel.

The operator of the welding monitors continuously the welding process and adjusts the parameters of welding.

Automatic welding is utilized in high-production applications.

Welding Tips

Don't use wires with smooth edges for drive rolls, instead use drive rolls with knurled edges.

  • Switch the polarity to negative electrode (check on the label of the maker, MIG is usually electrode positive)
  • Use adequate ventilation
  • 1/2" to 3/4"" wire sticking out
  • The gun is dragged (backhand weld)

For flat welds, you can weld 90 degrees or 10 degrees to the back T Joint at 45 degrees.

Lap joint is 60 to 70 degrees using one straight welding.

To raise the horizontal angle gun about 10 degrees, adjust the welding parameters of the machine to around 10% to 15 percent.

Vertical weld (can utilize either up or down vertically down) is best for metals with thinner thickness, use horizontal up when you need 1/4'' and higher Also, turn the parameters down 10% to 15 percent to the welding machine.

For overhead use a the speed of travel and reduce the welding parameters by 10 to 15 percent (as as compared to horizontal or flat weld).

Weld side-to-side to prevent undercutting.

Clean up slag thoroughly following every pass.


FCAW's FCAW flux process blends the best qualities from SMAW along with GMAW.

It employs a flux to protect the pool of weld however, a shielding gas may be used.

Continuous wire electrodes provide excellent deposition rates.


The flux-cored arc welding process is similar with gas metal arc welding (GMAW or MIG) in several ways.

The flux-cored wire that is used in this procedure has different characteristics. 

The arc welding process is widely used to weld ferrous metals, and is especially ideal for situations where the deposition rate is high. 

With high welding rates, the arc will be smooth and manageable contrasted with large-diameter gas electrodes for welding metal with carbon dioxide.

The weld pool and the arc can be clearly seen by the welder.

A slag layer can be left over the bead that is removed. 

Since the filler metal is transferred across the arc, a little spatter can be produced and smoke is produced.

The flux used for FCAW consumables can be constructed to accommodate larger pools of weld that are out of place and give more penetration than an actual MIG wire (GMAW). 

Welds of greater size can be created in one pass using larger diameter electrodes, whereas GMAW and SMAW will require several passes to achieve the same size of weld. 

This increases productivity and decreases the distortion caused by a weldment.


Like SMAW Slag, it is required to be eliminated between passes when welding multipass. 

This may reduce the effectiveness of the application and cause discontinuities in slag inclusion. 

For FCAWs with gas shields porosity may be caused by inadequate gas coverage.

The large quantities of fumes are generated through the FCAW process because of the voltages, currents, and currents and flux that are associated in the process. 

Costs can be increased due to the necessity of ventilation equipment to ensure security and health.

FCAW is more complicated and expensive than SMAW due to the fact that it requires wire feeder as well as a welding gun. 

The difficulty of the equipment makes it less mobile as SMAW.

Flux Cored Welding Equipment

The equipment that is used for the flux-core welding process is comparable to the equipment used to conduct gas metal arc welding.

The basic equipment for arc welding includes:

  • A source of power
  • Controls
  • Wire feeder
  • Welding gun
  • Cables for welding
The main difference between gas shielded electrodes as well as the self-shielded electrodes is the fact that the gas shielded wires need a shielding gas device.

This could affect the kind of welding gun employed. 

Fume extractors are typically employed during this process.

In the case of automatic welding machines various items including seam followers and movement devices are included in the basic equipment.

Power Source

Power source also known as a welding machine, delivers electricity of the correct voltage and amp to ensure a steady welding arc. 

The majority of power sources work with the 230 or 460 volt input power, however devices that work on 575 or 200 volt input are also accessible. 

Power sources can operate with single or three-phase inputs, with frequencies of 50-60 hertz.

Most power sources that are used for flux-cored arc welding come with an efficiency at 100 percent meaning that they can weld continuously. 

Certain machines utilized for this procedure have duty rates of 60 percent. 

This means they are able to weld six times every 10 minutes.

The most commonly recommended power sources for flux-cored welding are of the direct current constant voltage. 

Both rotating (generator) and static (single or three-phase transformer-rectifiers) are used. 

These same sources of power that are used in gaz metal welding can be used in flux-cored arc welding.

In general, flux-cored arc welding employs more the welding power than arc welding, which often requires a more powerful power source. 

It is essential to select the right power source capable of producing the highest power required for an application.

Direct Current Process

Direct current may be reverse or straight in polarity. 

Flux-cored electrode wires are constructed to function on the basis of either DCEP as well as DCEN.

Wires that are designed to work using an additional gas shielding device are usually specifically designed to work with DCEP. 

Certain self-shielding ties with flux cores are utilized to work with DCEP and others were designed to work with DCEN.

Positive current from electrode provides better penetration into the joint. 

Negative current from the electrode provides lighter penetration and is utilized to weld thinner metals that have an insufficient fitting. 

The weld produced by DCEN is deeper and wider than the weld created by DCEP.

Generator welding machines that are employed in the flux core process could be powered with an electric rotor for shop use, or internally-combusted engines for field-based applications.

The diesel or gasoline engine-driven welding equipments have air-cooled or liquid engines.

Motor-driven generators produce a very stable arc, but are noisier, more expensive, consume more power, and require more maintenance than transformer-rectifier machines.

Wire Feed Motor

The wire feeder motor supplies energy to drive the electrode of the gun and cable to the job. 

There are many different wire feeding options that are available. 

The selection of the right system depends on the purpose for which it is intended. 

The majority of wire feed systems utilized to conduct flux-cored welding are the type that is constant speed and are based on constant voltage sources of power.

With the variable speed wire feeder it is a circuit that senses voltage is utilized to keep the desired arc length changing the speed of the wire feed.

The length of the arc can alter the speed of the wire feed. 

Wire feeders are an electrical rotor, which is connected to a gearbox that contains drive rolls. 

The gearbox and wire feed motor that is shown in figure 10-57 feature feed rolls within the gearbox.

Air And Water Cooled Welding Guns

Both water-cooled and air-cooled guns are employed to conduct flux-cored arc welding. 

The flux core guns that are air-cooled are typically cooled by air around them, but an insulating gas, if used can provide additional cooling effects.

Water-cooled guns have pipes that allow water to circulate around the nozzle and the tube that contacts it.

Water-cooled flux core guns allow greater efficiency in cooling the gun. 

The water-cooled guns are recommended to be used with welding currents that exceed 600 amps. 

They are ideal for a variety of applications that require 500 amps. 

Welding guns have the maximum current capacity to allow continuous operation.

Air-cooled guns are the best choice for all applications that require less than 500 amps, however water-cooled guns can also be utilized.

Air-cooled guns are less heavy and easy to operate.

Shielding Gases

The shielding gas equipment that is used to gas-shielded flux-cored wires comprises of the gas supply hose and a gas regulator control valves, as well as the supply hose for the welder gun.

(as previously mentioned, flux core can be utilized without shielding gas, based on the use)

The shielding gases are provided in liquid form stored in storage tanks equipped with the help of vaporizers, or as a gas form in high pressure cylinders.

One exception to this could be the carbon dioxide.

When it is placed in high-pressure cylinders, it is present in both gas and liquid forms.

The main function of shielding gases is to shield the weld puddle and arc from the corrosive influences of the atmospheric. 

The oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere, when allowed to contact with the weld metal that is molten can cause brittleness and porosity.

In flux-cored arc welding shielding is achieved through the breakdown of the electrode's core or through a combination of these and the surrounding arc using the aid of a shielding gas from the outside.

The shielding gas is able to displace air within the arc. 

Welding takes place in a blanket of shielding gas. Inert gas and active gases can both be used to perform flux-cored welding.

Active gases like carbon dioxide, argon oxygen mixture and argon-carbon dioxide blends are utilized in almost all applications. 

The most popular is carbon dioxide commonly used. 

The selection of the right shielding gas for an use is determined by the kind of metal that will be welded, the arc's characteristics and transfer of metal, availability, the cost and the cost of gas. 

It's mechanical property requirements, as well as the welding bead shapes and penetration.

The various gas types used for shielding are listed below.

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide is produced by burning carbon dioxide, which is released by the combustion of fuel oil, natural gas or coke. 

Carbon dioxide is also a part of the process of calcining in lime kilns. the production of ammonia, as well as from the fermentation process of alcohol.

Alcohol is nearly 100% pure.

Carbon dioxide is accessible to the user via a bulk containers or cylinders. 

The cylinder is the most common. 

The bulk system carbon dioxide is typically removed in the form of a liquid, then it is heated until it reaches the gas stage prior to being injected into an electric welding torch. 

Bulk systems are usually only employed when it is required to supply an extensive number of welding stations.

The cylinder's carbon dioxide is both a liquid and gas form, with the carbon dioxide liquid covering about two-thirds the cylinder's space. 

It is about 90 percent of the volume within the cylinder. 

Over that liquid is the fact that it functions as an gas that vaporizes. 

As carbon dioxide is pulled into the tube, it will be replaced by carbon dioxide which evaporates from the liquid inside the cylinder. 

The total pressure is indicated by the gauge for pressure.

When the pressure inside the cylinder drops by 200psi (1379 kPa) then the cylinder needs to replace it with a fresh cylinder. 

A positive pressure must be maintained inside the cylinder to stop the moisture and other contaminants from entering the cylinder. 

The usual discharge rate of CO2 cylinders is approximately 10-50 cu ft per hour (4.7 up to 24 liters minute). 

But the maximum discharge rate of 25 cubic feet per hour (12 liters per minute) is suggested when welding with one cylinder.

When the vapor pressure decreases to the pressure of the cylinder and then to discharge tension through CO2's regulator it is able to absorb a significant amount of heat. 

If the flow rate is too high, the absorption of heat may result in an ice-up in the regulator as well as flowmeter, which disrupts gas flow shielding. 

If flow rates greater than 25 cubic feet per hour (12 liters per minute) is required, the normal procedure is to connect two CO2 cylinders that are parallel or to put an electric heater between the cylinder and the gas regulator, the pressure regulator and flowmeter.

The excessive flow rate can result in the dripping of liquid out of the cylinder. 

Carbon dioxide can be the commonly employed shielding gas used for flux-cored welding. 

The majority of active gases can't be employed for shielding, however carbon dioxide has numerous advantages when it comes to welding steel. 

They include low-cost and deep penetration. 

Carbon dioxide is a powerful force for a global transfer. 

Its carbon dioxide-based shielding gas is broken into parts like carbon monoxide as well as oxygen.

Since the gas is an oxidizing one deoxidizing elements are incorporated into the electrode wire's core to eliminate oxygen.

The oxides created by deoxidizing components will float up to the top of the welding, and are then incorporated into the slag layer that covers. 

A portion of the carbon dioxide gas can break into oxygen and carbon. 

If the carbon concentration of the weld pool is less than 0.05 percent the carbon dioxide shielding can boost the content of carbon within the metal. 

Carbon, which may reduce the resistance to corrosion of certain stainless steels, can be an issue in critical corrosion applications. 

Carbon added to the steel can reduce the hardness and ductility of certain lower alloy steels. 

When the amount of carbon of the weld metal is higher than 0.10 percent Carbon dioxide shielding can lower it to a lesser extent. 

This loss of carbon can be attributed to the formation of carbon monoxide, which can be trapped in the weld as porosity deoxidizing elements in the flux core reducing the effects of carbon monoxide formation.

Argon-carbon dioxide mixtures.

Argon And Carbon Dioxide

Can be mixed in conjunction with the flux-cored welding. 

A large proportion of argon gas present in the mix can result in greater deposition rate due to the formation of less spetter. 

The most widely utilized gas mixture for flux-cored arc welding is 75 percent argon and 25 percent carbon dioxide mix. 

The gas mixture results in an extremely fine metal transfer which is similar to the form of a spray. 

It also lowers the extent of oxidation in comparison to pure carbon dioxide. 

The weld that is formed in an argon carbon dioxide shield usually has greater yield and tensile strengths. 

Argon-carbon dioxide blends are typically employed for welding out of position and achieving improved arc characteristics. 

They are commonly employed on low-alloy steels as well as stainless steels. 

Electrodes specifically intended for use with CO2 could result in an over-accumulation of silicon, manganese and other deoxidizing elements when they are employed with shielding gas mixtures with an excessive amount of argon. 

This could have an effect upon the physical properties and mechanical characteristics of the.

Argon-Oxygen Mixtures

Argon-oxygen mixtures that contain one or two percent oxygen are utilized in certain applications.

These mixtures are known to stimulate the transfer of sprays, which decreases how much spatter is created.

One of the most important uses for these mixtures is welding of steel, where carbon dioxide could cause corrosion issues.


The electrodes used in flux-cored arc welding supply the metal filler to the welding Puddle as well as shielding to the arc.

Shielding is essential for all the sane electrode type.

The goal of shielding gas, is to offer protection from the elements to the arc and the molten weld puddle.

It is the chemical content of both electrodes and the flux core, when combined and the gas used to shield determines the weld metallic composition as well as the its mechanical characteristics.

The electrodes used for flux-cored arc welding are made up of a metallic shield that is surrounded by a core of alloying or fluxing compounds as shown in figure 10 - 58.

The carbon steel's cores or low alloy electrodes are made up of mostly fluxing compounds.

Certain low alloy steel electrodes have high quantities of alloying compounds that have low flux.

The majority of low alloy steel electrodes need gas shielding.

The sheath makes up 75-90 per cent of the total weight of an electrode. 

Self-shielded electrodes have more fluxing chemicals than gas shielded electrodes.

The components within the electrode perform exactly the same function as the coating for a covered electrode in shielded welding.

These are the functions:

To create a slag-like coating that sits on top of the metal weld and shields it from solidification.

For providing deoxidizers as well as scavengers to aid in purifying and producing metal-based welds that are solid.

For providing arc stabilizers that make an arc of welding that is smooth and help keep spatter at the minimal.

In addition to alloying elements, you can add them to the weld metal that can increase the strength as well as improve other properties of the weld metal.

To provide shielding gas.

The gas shielded cables require a supply of shielding gas that is in addition to the gas produced by the core that is the electrode.

Classification System For Tubular Wire Electrodes

The classification system to classify tubular electrodes that are used in weld core flux was created in The American Welding Society. 

Steels that are low and carbon-based are classified according to the following elements:

The mechanical properties of the metal used to weld.

Position for welding.

Composition chemical of weld material.

The type of current for welding.

No matter if an CO2 shielding gas can be utilized.

A good example of the carbon steel electrode classification is E70T-4, where:

"E" stands for electrode "E" indicates an electrode.

The second number "7" indicates the minimum strength in tensile units, which is 10,000 PSI (69 MPa).

The third digit, also known as "0" indicates the welding positions. The number "0" indicates flat and horizontal positions while"1" indicates all positions "1" indicates all positions. 4. "T" stands for tubular or flux cored wire "T" stands for a tubular or flux cored classification. 5. "4" as the suffix "4" gives the performance and usability abilities as illustrated in the table 10-13. If the "G" classification is used there are no performance or usability specifications are listed.

This classification is meant to be used for electrodes that are not covered by other classifications.

The chemical composition requirements for the weld material deposited on carbon steel electrodes can be found in the table 10-14.

Single pass electrodes don't need to be chemically formulated due to the fact that examining the chemistry of the undiluted weld metal is not able to provide the actual results of single-pass weld chemical analysis.

Carbon Flux Steel Electrodes

The classification of low-alloy steel electrodes for the process of flux core welding are comparable with the classification of carbon steel electrodes. 

One example of a low-alloy steel classification is E81T1 - NI2, which means:

"E" stands for electrode "E" indicates electrode.

The second number "8" indicates the minimum strength in tensiles for units that are 10,000 PSI (69 MPa). In this instance, it's the 80,000 PSI (552 MPa).

The requirements for mechanical properties of low-alloy steel electrodes are described in table 10. For requirements on impact strength, they are presented in the table 10-16.

The third digit, also known as "1" indicates the welding electrode's positional capabilities. An "1" indicates all positions and an "0" flat and horizontal position only.

"T" stands for "tubular" "T" indicates a tubular or flux-cored electrode for flux-cored arc welding.

The fifth digit, or "1" describes the usability and performance that the electrode has. The digits "1" and "5" are the same that are used for carbon steel electrode classification however only EXXT1X-X, EXXT4X-X and EXXT5-X are employed with low-alloy flux-cored electrodes made of steel.

6. The suffix "Ni2" tells the chemical composition of the weld metal , as illustrated in the table 10-17 below.

  • Single values are the highest unless noted otherwise.
  • Only for self-shielded electrodes
  • To satisfy the requirements for alloys of the G group the weld deposit must meet the minimum amount, as stated in the table, for only one element
  • The E80TI-W classification includes .30 to .75 percent copper

Stainless Steel Electrodes

The classification system used for stainless steel electrodes that are used in the flux-core welding process is dependent on its chemical makeup of weld metal as well as the kind of shielding that will be used in welding.

One example of a electrode class is called E308T-1:

"E" stands for electrode "E" indicates the electrode.

The numbers between "E" and the "T" are what the composition chemical of weld indicated in the table 10-18.

"T" stands for "T" "T" designates a tubular or flux-cored electrode wire.

The suffix "1" indicates the type of shielding employed, as is shown in the table 10-19.

Welding Cables

Connectors and welding cables join the generator to power, and on to work.

They are typically composed from copper.

The cable is comprised from hundreds of wires which are wrapped inside an insulated case made composed of synthetic or natural rubber.

It is the cable connecting the source of power to the gun. referred to as an electrode cable.

In semi-automatic welding, this wire is usually an integral part of the assembly that includes the gas hose for shielding and the conduit through which the electrode wire flows through.

In the case of automatic or machine welding the electrode lead is typically separate.

This cable connects to power sources is known as work lead.

Work leads are typically joined to the work with clamps, pinchers, or bolts.

The size of welding cables is determined by the capacity of output for the welding equipment's flux core and the frequency of the machine's duty cycle as well as the distance that is between the machine and the work area.

The cable sizes vary from the smallest AWG 8 up to AWG No 4/0 that has amperage ratings of 75 amps and up.

Table 10-20 lists suggested cable sizes to be used with various welding currents and lengths of cable. If a cable is too small could get too hot during welding.

Pros And Cons Of FCAW

Advantages: Reduced Cost And Higher Deposition


  • Deposition rates are extremely high.
  • More penetration than SMAW
  • High-quality
  • There is less pre-cleaning required than GMAW
  • Slag cover helps with bigger Welds that are not in-place Self-shielded FCAW is draft-resistant
  • The main advantages for flux-core welds is less cost and greater deposition rates than Solid Wire GMAW.

The price is lower for the flux-cored electrodes as all the alloying ingredients are present in the flux and not the wire filler made from steel like they are in solid electrodes.

Flux-cored welding is the best option when the appearance of the bead is important and no grinding of the weld necessary.

Flux-cored welding with no carbon dioxide shielding is utilized for a variety of mild steel construction tasks.

The resultant welds have greater strength, but less ductility than the ones that have Carbon dioxide shielding has been employed.

The result is less porosity and more diffusion of the weld if it is protected by the carbon dioxide shielding.

The flux-cored process has improved tolerances to scale and dirt.

There is less spatter when welding with flux core as compared to welding with solid wire MIG welding.

It has a very high deposition rate, as well as faster travel speeds are commonly employed.

Utilizing electrodes with small diameters welding is possible at any angle.

Certain flux-cored wires don't require an external source of gas shielding making it easier to use the equipment.

Electrodes are fed constantly which means there is hardly any time to change electrodes.

A greater proportion of filler metal is used in comparison to shield metal Arc welding.

Additionally, better penetration can be achieved than with the shielded metal arc welding.

Disadvantages: Sensitivity To Welding Conditions

Flux core welding disadvantages summary:

  • Slag has to be removed
  • More fumes and smoke more than GMAW and SAW
  • Spatter
  • The FCAW wire is more expensive
  • Equipment is more costly and complex than the SMAW

The majority of low-alloy or mild steel electrodes that are flux-cored are more susceptible to welding changes than SMAW electrodes.

This sensitivity, referred to as voltage tolerance, is reduced if a shielding gas is employed, or when the slag-forming elements of the core material are raised.

A power source with a constant voltage and the constant-speed electrode feeder are essential to ensure that the arc is maintained at a constant voltage.

FCAW Troubleshooting

When you need to troubleshoot flux core welds make sure you check the manufacturer's instructions (found on the panel of equipment) to follow the steps (described in greater detail below):

  • Wire Feed Speed
  • Travel Speed
  • Contact Tip to Work Distance
  • Feeder Polarity
  • Travel angle and work angle

Too Low of Wire Feed Current and Feed (higher speeds = more rates of current, slower speeds and lower current): In the event that the current is not high enough it will result in not having the full coverage, which means a narrow beed, and lots of spatter.

A slow wire speed for FCAW welding resulted in a difficult to eliminate slag as well as lots of spatter.

If the wire speed is too fast, the wire will be prone to stubbing.

To correct this, turn the voltage up or decrease wire speed.

Speed of travel too slow: The result is a convex weld. The slag does not cover properly.

Speeds that are higher than is suggested: will result in a narrow convex bead. Compare the flow speed above running puddles below.

Contact tip for working distance: Make sure you are using the correct distance of your wire.

Insufficient distance leads to inadequate coverage because of the inadequate heating of the flux in the wire.

The slag doesn't cover the entire weld, making the weld appear dark along to the middle of the welding.

When the distance has been too long it will cause scratching of the weld.

The wire appears as if it is searching for the weld, which makes the feed inconsistent, causing some ripples within the weld.

Polarity: Each wire has the recommended orientation.

In some cases, DC negative is employed in situations where DC positive is required.

This causes spatter and small weld.

Electrode Angles: For flux core, be aware of the an slag layer that you drag.

Be sure to drag the electrode so that you let the slag form in the area behind your weld.

It's lighter than the boiling puddle, and will rise until it reaches the top.

If you force it to the top, you risk developing slag inclusions in your weld.

Examine the travel and work angle when you are welding on flat surfaces the angle could be as high as 90 degrees.

If you're welding a lap joint or T joint, the angle needs to set the angle at 45 degrees to the joint and 5-10 degree angle in the direction of the drag.

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