What Is Brazing Metal

What Is Brazing Metal - Brazing is a method of joining two metals where two or more pieces of metal are joined by melting and then introducing an alloy of filler metal through the joint in a manner that results in this filler having an lower melting point than the metal joining it.

Brazing is different from welding in that it does not require heating the parts being used.

Brazing is distinct from soldering by the usage of higher temperatures and more tightly fitted parts than when soldering.

What Is Brazing Metal

The brazing process occurs when the filler metal is pushed into the space between the close-fitting components by capillary action.

Filler metals are elevated slightly above the melting (liquidus) temperature, and then protected by a suitable air-conditioning system, generally an atmosphere known as a flux.

It is then poured across the metal base (in an process called wetting) and then is chilled to bring the workpieces to each other.

The main benefit of brazing is the capability to join various metals with a lot of strength.


Key Takeaway

Brazing refers to the process of joining two pieces of metal into one sturdy load-bearing link.

Brazing is similar to soldering but at higher temperatures.

Make sure you choose the correct brazing rod material to match the metal that you intend to use for your work.

The rod for brazing should be melted through the heating of the pieces of metal being joined and not directly with the torch's flame.

Make use of a torch that creates an intense flame.


Brazing Rods Materials


  • Copper, brass, bronze: Copper Phosphorous Brazing & Welding Rods
  • Steel, stainless steel, nickel alloys, copper alloys, cast iron, tungsten carbide: Nickel Silver Brazing & Welding Rods
  • Cast iron, galvanized, nickel, steel, malleable iron: Bronze Brazing & Welding Rods
  • Aluminum: Bernzomatic AL3 Aluminum Brazing & Welding Rods


How To Braze Metal?

Brazing is a method of joining typically used to join the metals (but as well to ceramics) where melting filler metal (the braze alloy) is injected through the joint.


Step-by-Step guide:

Utilize wire or emery cloth scratch the surface of the metal.

Clean the metal surfaces with soapy water or an oil degreaser.

Place the metal in the way you prefer.

Most of the time an overlaid joint is stronger and easier to braze than gaps in the joint.

If necessary you will need clamps to hold the pieces to the wall.

Make sure to heat the joint between the two pieces of steel join until the joint is glowing.

Use the brazing rod to the joint, while continuing to warm and cool the surfaces of metal.

If the joint is large, heat the portions of the joint to a temperature before moving to the next adjoining region.

After brazing the surface, make use of a wire brush to scrub the surface of the brazed area to eliminate any residue or oxidation.

The melting temperature of filler metal is greater than 450 C however, it is always lower than the melting temperature of components to be joined, this is different from welding in which extreme temperatures are employed in order to bring the two metals.

Metal used to fill the gap, when it is heated just a little above the melting point is protected by a safe atmosphere that is typically called a flux.

The melting filler metal is cooled to bond the two pieces making a strong bond between dissimilar or similar metals.

The atmospheric conditions where the brazing process can be carried out can be carried out include air, combusted gas ammonia gas, nitrogen hydrogen, noble gases and inorganic vapors as well as vacuum.

This is done by with a range of heating sources like the torch, furnace and an induction coil.

In order to achieve a solid brazed joint, the filler as well as the base material should be metallurgically compatible and the design of the joint should include gaps through where the braze filler molten can be drawn out or dispersed through capillary action.

The proper joint gap depends on a number of variables which include the brazing atmosphere along with the structure of the parent material as well as brazes alloy.

Perfect for joining metals that are not compatible brazing is a commercially recognized process that is used across a variety of industries because of its versatility and the quality of the joints that can be made.

This makes it dependable for both critical and non-critical uses as well as among the top and most commonly employed joining techniques.


What Are The Different Methods Of Brazing?

Brazing, which makes use of various sources of heat, is usually identified by the method of heating employed.

To reach a brazing temperature certain methods are able to heat local (only the joint's area) while others provide heating to the entire joint (diffuse heat).


A few of the most widely utilized methods are highlighted below:


Localized Heating Techniques

  • Torch Brazing
In this way the required heat for melting and flow filler metal is provided through a flame of fuel gas.

The gas used to fuel the flame could be hydrogen, acetylene or propane, and is mixed with air or oxygen to create a flame.

What Is Brazing Metal

This process can be automated and requires a minimal capital investment.

Brazing with torch requires the use of a flux therefore a post-braze cleaning is typically needed.

  • Induction Brazing
Induction heating using high frequency for brazing is quick and efficient providing precise control of the temperature and the location of the heat.

Heating is produced by a swiftly alternating current, which is then injected into the workpiece through another coil.

  • Resistance Brazing
It is a method that generates heat through resistance to an electric current (as induction brazing) that is flowing through an electric circuit which includes workpieces.

This process is most suitable to relatively straightforward joints made of metals that possess an electrical conductivity that is high.


Diffuse Heating Techniques

  • Furnace Brazing
Brazing in the furnace has two primary advantages: brazing that is protected (where the use of vacuum or high-purity gases remove the requirement of flux) and the capability to accurately control each stage of the cooling and heating cycles.

Heating is done either by elements or gas firing.

  • Dip Brazing
This requires the immersion of the entire unit into a bath of either molten braze alloy or the molten flux.

In both instances the temperature of the bath is lower than the point of solidification for the metal that is used as the base but higher than what the metal filler is melting at.


Brazing VS Welding

Brazing is also classified by AWS as an a process of liquid-solid phase bonding.

Liquid refers to the fact in that the metal filler has not been melting, while solid indicates that the base materials or material is not melting.

As opposed to welding, brazing doesn't require melting the workpieces.

The primary difference between brazing and welding is the source of heat.

Brazing is performed using a torch furnace or induction, and dipped and resistance, as sources of heat in temperatures that exceed 840 F (450 C) while the arc welding process uses electricity as a source of heat that can reach temperatures as high as 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit.


Brazing VS Soldering

The only difference between soldering and brazing will be the temp at which the procedure is performed.

Soldering is performed at temperatures less than the 840 F mark (450 C) while brazing takes place at temperatures that is higher than the 840 F mark (450 C).


Advantages Of Brazing And Soldering

The advantages of soldering and brazing in comparison to alternative methods to join are the following:

  • Low temperature
  • It can be permanent or temporarily joined
  • Different materials are able to be joined
  • Time to join
  • Reduced chance of damaging components
  • The heating process is slow and the cooling
  • Parts of different thicknesses may be joined
  • Simple to realign
Soldering and brazing are two methods that have a lot of advantages, but they are often ignored when a joining method is selected.

The capability to join diverse materials, with a restricted range of fluxes and filler metals can reduce the requirement for a huge range of components that can translate into huge savings for small-sized business, home shop or even a farm.

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