Welding Positions | 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G, 6G | Ultimate Guide

Welding Positions refer to the different orientations in which welding can be performed. These positions are standardized by the American Welding Society (AWS) and are used to describe the direction of the weld, as well as the position of the welder and the workpiece.

Understanding the various welding positions is crucial for welders, as it impacts the quality and strength of the weld. Different welding positions have different challenges and requirements, and selecting the right position for a particular welding job is essential for producing a high-quality, strong, and durable weld. In this article, we will explore all the positions used in welding: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G, and 6G.

What are the 5 Welding Positions?

Flat Position:

This position is the easiest and most popular. This position is the most common and easiest to learn. The workpiece is horizontally parallel to the ground or any surface on which it’s placed. This means your eyes should look straight down at the workpiece and not sideways or up.

Travel Angle for Flat Position: 5-15% The travel angle of an electrode is the angle at which it can be tilted from its 90-degree position. The electrode must be operated from left to right.

Horizontal Position:

In this position, the welded piece is horizontally parallel to the ground or any other surface. This means your eyes should be straight down and not sideways. Flat Position has the same operating system and travel angle as Flat Position

Vertical Position:

Because the third position of welding is vertical, it creates an upright line from top-to-bottom when viewed from up. The workpiece that is being welded is perpendicular.

Overhead Position:

The Overhead Position is when your head looks upwards towards the object you are working on. This can be done by placing something in front of your face, such as a broom, to get an idea of what an “overhead” position looks like. This Position can travel up to 20 degrees.

Inline Position:

The fifth and final position of welding is inclined. This means that something has been slanted at an angle other than horizontal or vertical. You can do this by placing a workpiece against two objects so that it lies across them at an angle of fewer than 90 degrees to simplify things: at an angle of 45 degrees.

The Main Types of Weld:

Fillet Weld:

Fillet welding is the joining of two metals at 90-degree angles. The result is a triangle that can have a flat, concave, or convex surface. These two metal intersections connect in a T joint or a Lap Joint.

Groove Weld:

The process of joining two metals is known as groove welding. It involves welding their surfaces together or their edges. They form a U-shaped cross-section.

1G, 2G and 3G, 4G, and 5G, respectively, Welding Positions

1G Plate and Pipe Welding Position:

1g 1

This position is the easiest to weld and can be learned quickly. The flat position is indicated by the number 1 and the groove weld by the letter G. The joint or workpiece that is to be welded in the flat position is placed under the torch.

The molten metal flows down into the joint in this way. This makes it easy to weld. This position can be used for fillet, groove, and butt welding.

2G Plate and Pipe Welding Position:


The 2G or horizontal position is slightly more complex than the flat. This position allows the workpiece to be placed parallel to your body for welding. This position allows you to keep the workpiece in front of your body when welding.

This position can be used for either a fillet weld or a groove weld. The torch should be held at 45 degrees for fillet welding.

3G Plate or Vertical Uphill Position:


This position places the workpiece and welds vertically. This position has one problem: Molten metal tends to flow down and then pill up due to gravity. The torch must be held at 45 degrees to avoid this problem. To achieve vertical uphill, you can also use the workpiece’s low metal.

3G Plate or Vertical Downhill Position:

The workpiece can also be placed vertically in the vertical downhill position. Instead of using the lower metal of the workpiece, you can use the upper portion of the workpiece.

4G Plate or Overhead Position:


This position is very difficult to achieve. To perform overhead welding, it is best to be located below the workpiece. This presents many challenges. The crown bead is higher because of the sagging metal that was deposited at the joint.

It is best to keep the molten pool small in order to avoid this. If the molten puddle grows too large, turn off the torch and let it cool down before you continue. You can also achieve this position by holding the torch at 45 degrees while keeping your workpiece under it.

5G Pipe Welding Positions:

5G weld positions are complicated and can be divided into many categories.

5G Vertical Position or Uphill:


This position is used for pipe welding. This position allows welders to assume three positions simultaneously. The sequence starts at the overhead position and moves to a horizontal, then flat position. The sequence does not include any turning or rotation of the pipe or workpiece.

Position 5G Downhill:

The downhill position is similar to the uphill position. It follows the same sequence of three welding positions as the uphill position. The welder will start from a flat position and then move to a horizontal position before reaching the overhead position.

Position 6G Pipe Welding:


This position is considered the most difficult and it is a prerequisite for becoming certified. This position allows one pipe to be positioned at 45 degrees from the other. There are three possible weld positions. The horizontal position is the easiest. Next comes the flat position. Finally, there is the vertical position. This position is best mastered with a lot of practice.

6GR Pipe Welding Position:

Another 6G position is available, which is challenging. Restricted is the “R” in this name. This position allows welding to be done in a ring mode. This means a steel plate is placed underneath the welding site with a gap of one inch. This is where you attach a pipe or impediment to another structure.

These Positions have Application Sectors:

Uses of 1G, 2G, or 3G plate welding positions in fabrication and installation tanks, vessels, structural, shipbuilding, and aeronautics. Pipe welding positions for 1G, 2G, and 5G are used for the fabrication and installation of piping and pipes for industrial plants, the oil and natural gas industries, chemical plants, and other piping or pipeline industries.

6GR is used for the installation of offshore structures and other structures that have the TKY configuration

Relationship between Welder Certification and Welding Position:

You must pass the welder certification exams to be certified as a welder. These tests are based on many key factors, including welding positions. If you are able to weld in the overhead or vertical positions, you will be eligible for a 3G and 4G certification.

You do not need to pass any qualification tests below the level required for the 4G certification. For a higher level of certification, welders with more experience can apply for a 5G and 6G. Pipe welders, in particular, can apply for a 6G or 5G certification. These are the most difficult welding positions. They require more experience.

6G certification is considered the highest standard in welding certification. This certification allows welders to work around stationary pipes. This will determine which welding positions you can obtain the weld certification that you can get.

Which welding position should you use?

The location of the workpiece will determine the position you choose. It is important to note that other factors can also influence the welding position that you can work in.


Even the most skilled welders can be comfortable welding in complex positions. If you’re new to welding, however, the flat position is ideal. The certification of a welder will also be affected by their experience. Some welding jobs will require more experience.

The Electrode:

Different electrodes can be used for different types of welding. Electrodes are unique number designations. These numbers are used to identify the characteristics of an electrode. The third digit of an electrode’s number design refers to the position it can use.

An example of this is the number 1, which means that an electrode can be used at all positions. The number “2” on the other hand means that the electrode cannot be used in the horizontal or flat position.


Different welding processes are different depending on where the weld is placed. Overhead MIG welding, for example, may require a higher amperage and a shorter stick-out than stick welding.

Conclusion: Welding Positions

In conclusion, understanding welding positions is essential for achieving high-quality and durable welds. Each welding position has its unique challenges and requirements, and selecting the appropriate position for a given welding job can greatly impact the success of the weld.

Welders must have a thorough knowledge of welding positions and the associated techniques to be able to execute welds with precision and efficiency. By considering the factors involved in each welding position and employing proper techniques, welders can produce strong and reliable welds in a variety of industrial applications.

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